As well as my blog, I have started writing a series of books on “Getting Stuff Done with Magento 2“, available on Kindle. (For iOS and Android devices there is a free Kindle reader app; there is also a browser based reader as well.) The goal is to provide another perspective on Magento 2 development from the official product documentation.
To get Magento 2 running locally, I recommend everyone start with the “Running Magento 2 on Docker” page. It will get a local copy of the Magento 2 Luma store demo running with minimal effort. The other pages then build upon this for different development environment approaches.
There are several sub-pages available in the “Book” menu (top right of page) suggesting different ways to set up your development environment. Each page lists the pros and cons of each the approach. I recommend you read through the different options before selecting the most appropriate option for your personal usage.
Official instructions on how to install Magento with sample data can be found in the Magento online documentation at http://devdocs.magento.com. As you project gets more serious, I do recommended to refer back to the official documentation to work out the best overall environment best suited for you and your team.